Guitar Effects

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Effect pedals "

Effects pedals are electronic devices used by musicians, primarily electric guitar players, to alter the sound quality or timbre of electric or electronic instruments, and less often vocals picked up through microphones. They are called "pedals" because these devices usually take the form of small boxes that sit on the floor, are connected to the instrument and amplifier by long cables, and are turned on and off by tapping a pushbutton switch with one's foot. Some devices, such as wah-wah pedals, are also manipulated while in operation by rocking a foot pedal back and forth.

Examples for Blues effect pedals
boss bd2
Boss BluesBreaker II Effect Pedal
marshall bb2

Marshall BluesBreaker Effect Pedal
digitech bad monkey
Digitech Screamin´ Blues Effect Pedal

Distortion

Distortion - The familiar "rock guitar" sound. A distortion pedal takes a normal electric guitar signal and either amplifies it greatly or clips the peaks of the sound's waveform to impart a gritty, dirty, and/or harsh tone. Different types of distortion, each with distinct sonic characteristics, include regular distortion, overdrive or tube-style distortion, and "fuzz". Although most distortion devices use solid state circuitry, some "tube distortion" pedals are designed with actual vacuum tubes.

Delay

Creates a copy of an incoming sound and slightly time-delays it, creating either a "slap" (single repetition) or an echo (multiple repetitions) effect. Delay pedals may use either analog or digital technology. Analog delays often are less flexible and not as "perfect" sounding as digital delays, but some guitarists prefer them; some early delay devices actually used magnetic tape to produce the time delay effect.

Chorus / Flanger

A variation on delay which includes a cycling, variable delay time, and the delay time is so short that individual repetitions are not heard. The result is a thick, "swirling" sound that may suggest multiple instruments playing in unison (chorus) or a simulation of the fluid "tape flanging" effect associated with the psychedelic rock music of the 1960s. The chorus effect was especially popular with guitarists in the 1980s.

Phase shifter

This device creates a complex frequency response containing many regularly-spaced "notches" in an incoming signal by combining it with a copy of itself out of phase, and shifting the phase relationship cyclically. The phasing effect is a kind of hollow "whooshing" sound reminiscent of a flying jet airplane. Some electronic "rotating speaker simulators" are actually phase shifters. Phase shifters were popular in the 1970s, particularly used with electric piano and funk bass guitar.

Wah Wah

Wah-wah - This foot-operated pedal is technically a kind of band-pass filter, which allows only a small portion of the incoming signal's frequencies to pass. Rocking the pedal back and forth alternately allows lower and higher frequencies to pass through, the effect being similar to a person saying "wow". The wah-wah pedal, used with guitar, is most associated with 1960s psychedelic
rock and 1970s disco.

Volume pedal

Another rocking foot-pedal device, this is simply an ordinary volume control designed to be foot-operated while playing. A volume pedal enables a musician to fade into and out of a musical passage, or even individual notes. A guitar played this way sounds radically different because the percussive plucking of the strings can be softened or eliminated entirely, imparting an almost human-vocal sound. Volume pedals are also widely used with pedal steel guitars, as in country music.

Compressor

This device does not radically alter the tone of an instrument the way the previously mentioned pedals do, but many guitarists use it as a kind of effect. A compressor acts as an automatic volume control, progressively decreasing the output level as the incoming signal gets louder, and vice versa. This evens out the overall volume of an instrument, and can make a guitar appear to sustain much longer than natural.

Echo / Delay

one or several delayed signals are added to the original signal. To be perceived as echo, the delay has to be of order 50 ms or above. Short of actually playing a sound in the desired environment, the effect of echo can be implemented using either digital or analog methods. Analog echo effects are implemented using tape delays. When large numbers of delayed signals are mixed over several seconds, the resulting sound has the effect of being presented in a large room, and it is more commonly called reverberation or reverb for short.

Vibrato

Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. Sometimes, vibrato is erroneously referred to as tremolo (notably in the context of a tremolo arm), a periodic fluctuation in the amplitude (rather than frequency) of a sound.

Tremolo

Tremolo is also a short name for Tremolo arm, a part of an electric guitar that can be used to create a vibrato pitch-variation effect. In the electric guitar terms, vibrato often refers to a rapid repetetive increase and decrease in volume, similar to the first meaning of tremolo as defined above. This opposite naming of vibrato and tremolo was made popular by the products of the Fender Musical Instrument Corporation and has since become the norm in the nomenclature of players of electric guitar. Other names for the device are Whammy Bar and Trem Bar. The Bigsby vibrato is one example of this device.